Dynamic Requirement

Overview

Benefit to People with Disabilities

  1. Keyboard users can use keyboard header navigation commands to efficiently navigate the content of web resources, this includes people with physical disabilities and speech users.
  2. Speech users can easily find and identify the main sections and sub sections of a web resource.

Benefits to All Users

  1. Improved consistency in styling and identification of the content of web resources, making pages more usable.
  2. Search engines weight header content as more important than paragraph content, improving search results.

Benefits to Developers

  1. Easier to create and maintain web resources when headers are used in conjunction with CSS by making header styling more predictable and easier to manage.
  2. Search engines weight header content as more important than paragraph content increasing the ranking of web resources when header content provides meaningful information on the content of the page.

HTML Markup Details

ul, ol and dl elements
The ul element is the preferred container for navigation links.
Other containers elements identified as navigation bars include the nested table elements that contain mostly links and map elements that contain area elements. Although these containers are not as accessible or interoperable as the ul element.
li, dt, dd and a
Use li, dt, dd as a container for individual links in the navigation bar
Headings h2-h6
Heading elements (h2-h6) are used to provide descriptive labels for a collection of links for page and site navigation, the h2 element is preferred for most navigation bars.
The heading needs to immediately proceed the navigation bar container element.
Heading elements can be hidden in a graphical rendering using CSS absolute positioning, for example:<h2 style="position: absolute; left: -200em; top:-20em;">menu title</code>
onmousedown and onmouseover event handlers
Mouse event handlers are usually associated with dynamic menus. The event handlers provide a clue that the nested lists are being used for a dynamic menu.
onkeydown, onkeyup and onkeypress event handlers
Dynamic menus must suppport keyboard operation and keyboard handlers will be need to open and close sub menus of the dynamic menu.

Related Accessibility Requirements

Illinois Information Technology Accessibility Standards
1.4 Use headings to introduce sections and sub-sections, and use them in the correct order.
1.5 Use lists to identify series of related items, including navigation menus.
9.2 Provide a means of skipping past repetitive navigation links.
Section 508
1194.21 (a) When software is designed to run on a system that has a keyboard, product functions shall be executable from a keyboard where the function itself or the result of performing a function can be discerned textually.
1194.22 (o) A method shall be provided that permits users to skip repetitive navigation links.
1194.22 (l) When pages utilize scripting languages to display content, or to create interface elements, the information provided by the script shall be identified with functional text that can be read by assistive technology.
1194.22 (c) Web pages shall be designed so that all information conveyed with color is also available without color, for example from context or markup.
1194.22 (d) Documents shall be organized so they are readable without requiring an associated style sheet.
W3C Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 2.0
2.1.1 Keyboard
2.1.2 No Keyboard Trap
2.1.3 Keyboard
2.4.1 Bypass Blocks
2.4.6 Headings and Labels
2.4.10 Section Headings
3.2.1 On Focus
3.2.2 On Input
3.2.3 Consistent Navigation
3.2.4 Consistent Identification
W3C Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 1.0
3.1 When an appropriate markup language exists, use markup rather than images to convey information.
3.3 Use style sheets to control layout and presentation.
3.5 Use header elements to convey document structure and use them according to specification.
13.4 Use navigation mechanisms in a consistent manner.
13.5 Provide navigation bars to highlight and give access to the navigation mechanism.